The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) announce the release of the updated Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. The guidelines were simultaneously published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (PIDJ).
These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and health care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. The guidelines are developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases from the U.S. government and academic institutions, under the auspices of the NIH Office of AIDS Research (OAR).
The guidelines can be found in Web-friendly and PDF formats on the AIDSinfo clinical guidelines portal. To view or download the guidelines, visit the Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines section of AIDSinfo.
These guidelines were last published in 2009. Selected key updates to the guidelines include the following:
- Greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs), especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists;
- Increased information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS);
- Information about managing ART in children with OIs, including potential drug-drug interactions;
- Updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including pneumococcal, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines;
- Addition of sections on influenza, giardiasis, and isosporiasis;
- Elimination of sections on aspergillosis, bartonellosis, and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 infections; and
- Updated recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children.
In addition to information on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of each OI, the guidelines include a summary of the most important recommendations for each OI at the beginning of each section and a table of dosing recommendations at the end of each section. Summary tables are included at the end of the document that list dosing recommendations for preventing and treating OIs in children, drug preparation and toxicity information for children, and major drug-drug interactions.
Additional HIV/AIDS-Related Medical Practice Guidelines Available from AIDSinfo
AIDSinfo is the U.S. government source for HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines on the management of HIV/AIDS and OIs of HIV/AIDS. Visit our clinical guidelines portal to view and download the most up-to-date, federally approved medical practice guidelines in both Web-friendly and PDF formats.
The guidelines are also available in a mobile-optimized format, which allows you to view the guidelines in an easy-to-read format on your phone or tablet on the AIDSinfo mobile site.
If you have questions or comments about the updated Pediatric HIV/AIDS OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines, any other HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, or any AIDSinfo features, please send an e-mail to ContactUs@aidsinfo.nih.gov.